Saturday, July 3, 2010

Adsense

AdSense

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


AdSense is an ad serving application run by Google Inc. Website owners can enroll in this program to enable text, image, and video advertisements on their websites. These advertisements are administered by Google and generate revenue on either a per-click or per-impression basis. Google beta tested a cost-per-action service, but discontinued it in October 2008 in favor of a DoubleClick offering (also owned by Google). In Q1 2010, Google earned US$2.04 billion ($8.16 billion annualized), or 30% of total revenue, through AdSense.

AdSense
Google Adsense logo.png
Developer(s) Google Inc.
Initial release June 18, 2003 (2003-06-18)
Operating system Cross-platform (web-based application)
Type Online advertising
Website www.google.com/adsense




Overview

Google uses its Internet search technology to serve advertisements based on website content, the user's geographical location, and other factors. Those wanting to advertise with Google's targeted advertisement system may enroll through AdWords. AdSense has become a popular method of placing advertising on a website because the advertisements are less intrusive than most banners, and the content of the advertisements is often relevant to the website.

The use of proxy is allowed but if you use a proxy to enter your adsense account your account will be disabled. It has been seen lately that you can use proxies for logins, but sign up must be from a real computer. Proxies like hidemyass, armyproxy, schoolproxy, etc., can be used after signup.

Many websites use AdSense to monetize their content. AdSense has been particularly important for delivering advertising revenue to small websites that do not have the resources for developing advertising sales programs and sales people. To fill a website with advertisements that are relevant to the topics discussed, webmasters implement a brief script on the websites' pages. Websites that are content-rich have been very successful with this advertising program, as noted in a number of publisher case studies on the AdSense website.

Some webmasters invest significant effort into maximizing their own AdSense income. They do this in three ways:

1. They use a wide range of traffic-generating techniques, including but not limited to online advertising.
2. They build valuable content on their websites that attracts AdSense advertisements, which pay out the most when they are clicked.
3. They use text content on their websites that encourages visitors to click on advertisements. Note that Google prohibits webmasters from using phrases like "Click on my AdSense ads" to increase click rates. The phrases accepted are "Sponsored Links" and "Advertisements".

The source of all AdSense income is the AdWords program, which in turn has a complex pricing model based on a Vickrey second price auction. AdSense commands an advertiser to submit a sealed bid (i.e., a bid not observable by competitors). Additionally, for any given click received, advertisers only pay one bid increment above the second-highest bid.



History

Oingo, Inc., a privately held company located in Los Angeles, was started in 1998 by Gilad Elbaz and Adam Weissman. Oingo developed a proprietary search algorithm that was based on word meanings and built upon an underlying lexicon called WordNet, which was developed over the previous 15 years by researchers at Princeton University, led by George Miller.

Oingo changed its name to Applied Semantics (company) in 2001, which was later acquired by Google in April 2003 for US$102 million.

In 2009, Google AdSense announced that it would now be offering new features, including the ability to "enable multiple networks to display ads".



Types

AdSense for Feeds

In May 2005, Google announced a limited-participation beta version of AdSense for Feeds, a version of AdSense that runs on RSS and Atom feeds that have more than 100 active subscribers. According to the Official Google Blog, "advertisers have their ads placed in the most appropriate feed articles; publishers are paid for their original content; readers see relevant advertising—and in the long run, more quality feeds to choose from."

AdSense for Feeds works by inserting images into a feed. When the image is displayed by a RSS reader or Web browser, Google writes the advertising content into the image that it returns. The advertisement content is chosen based on the content of the feed surrounding the image. When the user clicks the image, he or she is redirected to the advertiser's website in the same way as regular AdSense advertisements.

AdSense for Feeds remained in its beta state until August 15, 2008, when it became available to all AdSense users.


AdSense for search

A companion to the regular AdSense program, AdSense for search, allows website owners to place Google search boxes on their websites. When a user searches the Internet or the website with the search box, Google shares any advertising revenue it makes from those searches with the website owner. However the publisher is paid only if the advertisements on the page are clicked: AdSense does not pay publishers for mere searches.


AdSense for mobile content

AdSense for mobile content allows publishers to generate earnings from their mobile websites using targeted Google advertisements. Just like AdSense for content, Google matches advertisements to the content of a website — in this case, a mobile website.


AdSense for domains

Adsense for domains allows advertisements to be placed on domain names that have not been developed. This offers domain name owners a way to monetize domain names that are otherwise dormant. Adsense for domains is currently being offered to some users, with plans to make it available to all in stages.

On December 12, 2008, TechCrunch reported that AdSense for Domains is available for all US publishers.


AdSense for video

AdSense for video allows publishers with video content to generate revenue using ad placements from Google's extensive Advertising network including popular Youtube videos.



XHTML compatibility

As of September 2007, the HTML code for the AdSense search box does not validate as XHTML, and does not follow modern principles of website design because of its use of

* non-standard end tags, such as and ,
* the attribute checked rather than checked="checked",
* presentational attributes other than id, class, or style — for example, bgcolor and align,
* a table structure for purely presentational (i.e., non-tabular) purposes,1 and
* the font tag.2

1: using a table structure for unintended purposes is strongly discouraged by the W3C, but nevertheless does not cause a document to fail validation — there is currently no algorithmic method of determining whether a table is used "correctly" (for displaying tabular data or for displaying elements, that get proportionally wider or narrower when browser window resizes in width without active client side scripting).
2: the font tag is deprecated but does not fail validation in any XHTML standard.

Additionally, the AdSense advertisement units use the JavaScript method document.write(), which does not work correctly when rendered with the application/xhtml+xml MIME type. The units also use the iframe HTML tag, which is not validated correctly with the XHTML 1.0 Strict or XHTML 1.0 Transitional DOCTYPEs.

The terms of the AdSense program forbid its affiliates from modifying the code, thus preventing these participants from having valid XHTML websites.

However, a workaround has been found by creating a separate HTML webpage containing only the AdSense advertisement units, and then importing this page into an XHTML webpage with an object tag. This workaround appears to be accepted by Google.



How AdSense works

* The webmaster inserts the AdSense JavaScript code into a webpage.
* Each time this page is visited, the JavaScript code uses inlined JSON to display content fetched from Google's servers.
* For contextual advertisements, Google's servers use a cache of the page to determine a set of high-value keywords. If keywords have been cached already, advertisements are served for those keywords based on the AdWords bidding system. (More details are described in the AdSense patent.)
* For site-targeted advertisements, the advertiser chooses the page(s) on which to display advertisements, and pays based on cost per mille (CPM), or the price advertisers choose to pay for every thousand advertisements displayed.
* For referrals, Google adds money to the advertiser's account when visitors either download the referred software or subscribe to the referred service. The referral program was retired in August 2008.
* Search advertisements are added to the list of results after the visitor performs a search.
* Because the JavaScript is sent to the Web browser when the page is requested, it is possible for other website owners to copy the JavaScript code into their own webpages. To protect against this type of fraud, AdSense customers can specify the pages on which advertisements should be shown. AdSense then ignores clicks from pages other than those specified.



Abuse

Some webmasters create websites tailored to lure searchers from Google and other engines onto their AdSense website to make money from clicks. These "zombie" websites often contain nothing but a large amount of interconnected, automated content (e.g., a directory with content from the Open Directory Project, or scraper websites relying on RSS feeds for content). Possibly the most popular form of such "AdSense farms" are splogs (spam blogs), which are centered around known high-paying keywords. Many of these websites use content from other websites, such as Wikipedia, to attract visitors. These and related approaches are considered to be search engine spam and can be reported to Google.

A Made for AdSense (MFA) website or webpage has little or no content, but is filled with advertisements so that users have no choice but to click on advertisements. Such pages were tolerated in the past, but due to complaints, Google now disables such accounts.

There have also been reports of Trojan horses engineered to produce counterfeit Google advertisements that are formatted looking like legitimate ones. The Trojan uploads itself onto an unsuspecting user's computer through a webpage and then replaces the original advertisements with its own set of malicious advertisements.



Criticism

Due to alleged concerns about click fraud, Google AdSense has been criticized by some search engine optimization firms as a large source of what Google calls "invalid clicks", in which one company clicks on a rival's search engine advertisements to drive up the other company's costs.

To help prevent click fraud, AdSense publishers can choose from a number of click-tracking programs. These programs display detailed information about the visitors who click on the AdSense advertisements. Publishers can use this to determine whether or not they have been a victim of click fraud. There are a number of commercial tracking scripts available for purchase.

The payment terms for webmasters have also been justly criticized. Google withholds payment until an account reaches US$100, but many micro content providers require a long time—years in some cases—to build up this much AdSense revenue. However, Google will pay all earned revenue greater than US$10 when an AdSense account is closed.

Many website owners complain that their AdSense accounts have been disabled just before they were supposed to receive their first paycheck from Google. Google claims accounts have been disabled due to click fraud or forbidden content, but have offered no proof of this. Attempts to appeal against Google decisions are directed to non-monitored mailboxes and do not receive replies.

Google came under fire when the official Google AdSense Blog showcased the French video website Imineo.com. This website violated Google's AdSense Program Policies by displaying AdSense alongside sexually explicit material. Typically, websites displaying AdSense have been banned from showing such content. Some sites have been banned for distributing copyrighted material even when they hold the copyright themselves or are authorized by the copyright holder to distribute the material.

It has been reported that using both AdSense and AdWords may cause a website to pay Google a commission when the website advertises itself.

In some cases, AdSense displays inappropriate or offensive ads. For example, in a news story about a terrorist attack in India, an advert was generated for a (presumably non-existent) educational qualification in terrorism.
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Toy Story 3 (2010)

Toy Story 3
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Toy Story 3 is a 2010 American 3D computer-animated film. It is the third installment in the Toy Story series. The film was produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. Lee Unkrich, who edited the previous films, and co-directed the second, takes over as director. In his place, Ken Schretzmann is the editor.

Tom Hanks, Tim Allen, Joan Cusack, Don Rickles, Estelle Harris, John Ratzenberger, Wallace Shawn, Jeff Pidgeon, Jodi Benson, R. Lee Ermey, John Morris, and Laurie Metcalf all reprised their voice-over roles from the previous films. Jim Varney, who played Slinky Dog in the first two movies, and Joe Ranft, who played Lenny and Wheezy, have both died since the second film was released. The role of Slinky was taken over by Blake Clark, while Ranft's characters and various others were written out of the story.

Toy Story 3 was released in theaters on June 17, 2010 in Singapore; June 18, 2010 in the United States and Canada and June 24, 2010 in Australia. It will be released on July 19, 2010 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Originally the UK release was set as July 23 but has since been pushed forward due to its anticipated high demand in the country. Toy Story 3 broke the record of Shrek the Third as the biggest single day gross for an animated film, but it was unable to top Shrek the Third's opening weekend and, with a $110,307,189 gross, it received the second highest opening weekend for an animated movie.It is also the highest grossing opening weekend for a Pixar film, as well as the highest grossing opening weekend for a film to have opened in the month of June.

Toy Story 3

Official movie poster
Directed by Lee Unkrich
Produced by Darla K. Anderson
John Lasseter (Executive)
Nicole Paradis Grindl (Associate)
Written by Michael Arndt
Starring
  • Tom Hanks
  • Tim Allen
  • Joan Cusack
  • Ned Beatty
  • Don Rickles
  • Michael Keaton
  • Wallace Shawn
  • John Ratzenberger
  • Estelle Harris
  • John Morris
  • Jodi Benson
  • Emily Hahn
  • Laurie Metcalf
  • Blake Clark
Music by Randy Newman
Editing by Ken Schretzmann
Studio Pixar Animation Studios
Distributed by Walt Disney Pictures
Release date(s) June 18, 2010 (2010-06-18)
Running time 103 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Spanish
Budget $200 million
Gross revenue $373,039,169
Preceded by Toy Story 2



Plot


The film opens with a Western-style action sequence, featuring Woody, Jessie and Buzz battling Hamm, Mr. and Mrs. Potato Head and the aliens. At the climax, the sequence is revealed to be a visualization of one of Andy's many imagined adventures while he played with the toys as a child. Now seventeen, Andy has long outgrown the toys and is preparing to move out of the house to attend college. He decides to bring Woody with him, and packs the other toys in a trash bag to be stored in the attic (a move the toys have long prepared for). However, his mother mistakes the bag for garbage and leaves it on the curb. After the toys barely manage to escape the garbage truck, they refuse to believe Woody (who saw what happened) when he says that Andy didn't intend to throw them away, and Woody and the rest of the toys end up sneaking into a box of donations to a local daycare, Sunnyside.

Upon their arrival at Sunnyside, the toys receive a warm welcome led by Lots-O'-Huggin' Bear (a.k.a. Lotso). Other Sunnyside residents include Ken and a baby doll named Big Baby. Lotso shows them to their new home, the Caterpillar room, before returning to the Butterfly room, where Lotso, Ken (now joined by Andy's sister's Barbie) and Big Baby live. While Sunnyside's children are still outside, Woody attempts again to persuade the other toys to return to Andy's house, but Lotso has convinced them that they will be happier at Sunnyside; Woody sets off alone. After he leaves, the remaining toys soon discover that the Caterpillar room is designated for toddlers, whose rambunctious nature is upsetting to the toys.

After escaping the building, Woody is found by a girl named Bonnie, who brings him home to play with her own well-loved array of toys. Woody learns from one of them, Chuckles the Clown, that Sunnyside is a virtual prison for toys, run with an iron fist by Lotso. Chuckles, Lotso and Big Baby were formerly owned by a girl named Daisy, who loved them dearly, with Lotso being the "special one", who she always kept close to her. However, Daisy accidently lost them while away from home, when they stopped at the roadside to play. When the trio finally made their way back to Daisy's home, Lotso found that he had been replaced, causing him to snap and become bitter and controlling.

Meanwhile, the toys at Sunnyside discover Lotso's true personality for themselves: when Buzz goes to ask Lotso to transfer them to the Butterfly room, he is captured by Ken, Big Baby and Lotso's other minions. Under Lotso's direction, they use Buzz's instruction book to reset his memory to its originally-packaged state, causing him to forget his friendships with Andy's other toys and become an officer under Lotso's control. With Buzz's help, Lotso has all of Andy's toys imprisoned on the shelves of the Caterpillar room.

Woody returns to Sunnyside to help his friends escape. After arriving, he meets Chatter Telephone, the oldest toy at Sunnyside, who informs him about Lotso's extensive security measures, including an cymbal-wielding monkey, who alerts Lotso to any attempted escape. The toys manage to carry out a plan to escape the Sunnyside via the garbage chute (although their efforts to restore Buzz's former self lead to him temporarily adopting his Spanish-language mode, which makes him more concerned with wooing Jessie through seductive salsa dance). As they narrowly avoid falling into the dumpster, Lotso and his henchmen surprise them. Woody tells the other toys about Lotso's past, convincing them of Lotso's deception and leading Big Baby to throw Lotso himself into the dumpster. However, Lotso manages to pull Woody in with him just before a garbage truck arrives, forcing the others to jump in as well in order to rescue Woody.

In the dumpster, Buzz is struck by a falling TV, which causes him to regain his memory and ability to speak English. The truck takes the toys to a landfill, where they are, through a series of events, forced onto a conveyor belt. They manage to pass over a shredder before realizing an incinerator looms ahead. Buzz and Woody help Lotso climb a ladder where he can push a button to stop the conveyor belt, but Lotso runs away once he is safe. As they realize they cannot escape the incinerator, the toys hold hands, ready to face their impending doom. They are rescued at the last moment by a giant claw crane being operated by the aliens. As the other toys are saved, Lotso is found by a garbage man who ties the bear to the front of his garbage truck.

The toys make their way back to Andy's room, where Woody goes back into the "College" box and the other toys enter a box designated for the attic. Unseen by the others, Woody writes a message on a Post-It and sticks it to the top of the "Attic" box. When Andy reads the note and discovers his assumed-lost toys, he decides to give the toys away instead of storing them. He brings the box over to Bonnie's house and asks if she will take care of them, explaining to her each toy's history and personality. At the bottom of the box, Bonnie recognizes Woody, and Andy reluctantly decides to give Woody to her as well. Andy and Bonnie play together with the toys, Andy's toys finally enjoying the final playtime with him that they've been longing for. Before Andy drives to college he thanks the toys for all the time they spent together. After the credits Sunnyside is shown under the leadership of Ken and Barbie, who have turned the daycare into a toy paradise. They keep in touch with Andy's toys by slipping notes into Bonnie's backpack.



Voice cast
  • Tom Hanks as Woody
  • Tim Allen as Buzz Lightyear
  • Joan Cusack as Jessie
  • Ned Beatty as Lots-O'-Huggin' Bear
  • Don Rickles as Mr. Potato Head
  • Wallace Shawn as Rex
  • John Ratzenberger as Hamm
  • Blake Clark as Slinky Dog
  • Michael Keaton as Ken
  • Estelle Harris as Mrs. Potato Head
  • John Morris as Andy
  • Jodi Benson as Barbie
  • Emily Hahn as Bonnie
  • Laurie Metcalf as Mrs. Davis
  • Teddy Newton as Chatter Telephone
  • Bud Luckey as Chuckles the Clown
  • Timothy Dalton as Mr. Pricklepants
  • Kristen Schaal as Trixie
  • Jeff Garlin as Buttercup
  • Bonnie Hunt as Dolly
  • Beatrice Miller as Molly
  • John Cygan as Twitch
  • Jeff Pidgeon as Squeeze Toy Aliens
  • Whoopi Goldberg as Stretch
  • Jack Angel as Chunk
  • R. Lee Ermey as Sarge
  • Lori Alan as Bonnie's Mom
  • Jan Rabson as Sparks
  • Richard Kind as Bookworm
  • Charlie Bright as Peaty/Young Andy
  • Amber Kroner as Peatrice
  • Brianna Maiwand as Peanelope
  • Erik von Detten as Sid
  • Jack Willis as Frog

Non-speaking characters include Bullseye, Big Baby, Totoro, and the Monkey.

Several other characters were written out of the story by being either sold or thrown away after Toy Story 2 (they appear in this film only via archive footage).

The character of Slinky Dog also was limbo after the death of Slinky Dog's voice, actor Jim Varney, from lung cancer in 2000, shortly after Toy Story 2 came out. Veteran actor Blake Clark was chosen for the part. After Clark was cast to play Slinky Dog, the producers later discovered by accident that Clark and Varney had been close friends, making the transition a lot easier.



Development

According to the terms of Pixar's revised deal with Disney, all characters created by Pixar for their films were owned by Disney. Furthermore, Disney retains the rights to make sequels to any Pixar film, though Pixar retained the right of first refusal to work on these sequels. But in 2004, when the contentious negotiations between the two companies made a split appear likely, Disney Chairman at the time Michael Eisner put in motion plans to produce Toy Story 3 at a new Disney studio, Circle 7 Animation. Tim Allen, the voice of Buzz Lightyear, indicated a willingness to return even if Pixar was not on board.

Promotional art for Circle 7's Toy Story 3, displaying the storyline of the Buzz Lightyears being recalled; this story was later shelved.

Jim Herzfeld wrote a script for Circle 7's version of the film. It focused on the other toys shipping a malfunctioning Buzz to Taiwan, where he was built, believing that he will be fixed there. While searching on the Internet, they find out that many more Buzz Lightyear toys are malfunctioning around the world and the company has issued a massive recall. Fearing Buzz's destruction, a group of Andy's toys (Woody, Rex, Slinky, Mr. Potato Head, Hamm, Jessie, and Bullseye) venture to rescue Buzz. At the same time Buzz meets other toys from around the world that were once loved but have now been recalled.

In January 2006, Disney bought Pixar in a deal that put Pixar chiefs Edwin Catmull and John Lasseter in charge of all Disney Animation. Shortly thereafter, Circle 7 Animation was shut down and its version of Toy Story 3 was shelved. The following month, Disney CEO Robert Iger confirmed that Disney was in the process of transferring the production to Pixar. John Lasseter, Andrew Stanton, Pete Docter, and Lee Unkrich visited the house where they first pitched Toy Story and came up with the story for the film over a weekend. Stanton then wrote a treatment. On February 8, 2007, Catmull announced Toy Story 2's co-director, Lee Unkrich, as the sole director of the film instead of John Lasseter, and Michael Arndt as Screenwriter. The release date was moved to 2010.

When the people behind the movie sat down to look at their work from the original Toy Story during the early development stages, they found they could open the old files, but they could not edit the 3D models and had to recreate everything from scratch.

Instead of sending Tom Hanks, Tim Allen, and John Ratzenberger scripts for their consideration in reprising their roles, a complete story reel of the film was shown to the actors in a theater. The reel was made up of moving storyboards with pre-recorded voices, sound effects, and music. At the conclusion of the preview, the actors signed on to the film.

Dolby Laboratories announced that Toy Story 3 will be the first movie that will feature their theatrical 7.1 surround audio format.




Marketing

The film's first teaser trailer was released with the Disney Digital 3-D version of the film Up on May 29, 2009. On October 2, 2009 Toy Story and Toy Story 2 were re-released as a double feature in Disney Digital 3-D. The first full-length trailer was attached as an exclusive sneak peek and a first footage to the Toy Story double feature, on October 12, 2009. A second teaser was released on February 10, 2010, followed by a second full-length trailer on February 11 and appeared in 3D showings of Alice in Wonderland. On March 23, 2010, Toy Story was released on Blu-ray/DVD combo pack which included a small feature of "The Story of Toy Story 3". Also, Toy Story 2 was released on that day in the same format which had a small feature on the "Characters of Toy Story 3". On May 11, 2010, both films had a DVD-only re-release which contained the features.

Mattel Thinkway Toys and Lego are among those who will make toys to promote the film. Disney Interactive Studios has also produced a video game based on the film which was released on June 15, 2010.

Toy Story 3 was featured in Apple's iPhone OS 4 Event on April 8, 2010, with Steve Jobs demonstrating a Toy Story 3 themed iAd written in HTML5.

Pixar designed a commercial for a toy, Lots-o'-Huggin' Bear, and formatted it to look like it came from an old VCR recording. The recording was altered with distorted sound, noise along the bottom of the screen, and flickering video, all designed to make it look like a converted recording from around 1983. A Japanese version of the commercial was also released online..

On Dancing with the Stars' May 11, 2010 episode, the Gipsy Kings performed a Spanish-language version of the song "You've Got a Friend in Me". It also featured a paso doble dance which was choreographed by Cheryl Burke and Tony Dovolani. Both the song and dance are featured in the film.

Sneak peeks of the film are shown on Disney Channel. One sneak peek was shown on Cartoon Network in the United States on June 10, 2010.



Reception

The film has received universal acclaim. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 99% of critics have given the film a positive review based on 206 reviews, with an average score of 8.8/10. The critical consensus is, "Deftly blending comedy, adventure, and honest emotion, Toy Story 3 is a rare second sequel that really works." Among Rotten Tomatoes' Cream of the Crop, which consists of popular and notable critics from the top newspapers, websites, television, and radio programs, the film holds an overall approval rating of 100% based on 33 reviews.Another review aggregator, Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 top reviews from mainstream critics, calculated a score of 91 based on 38 reviews.

A. O. Scott from The New York Times states: "This film -- this whole three-part, 15-year epic -- about the adventures of a bunch of silly plastic junk turns out also to be a long, melancholy meditation on loss, impermanence and that noble, stubborn, foolish thing called love. "Owen Gleiberman from Entertainment Weekly gave the film an A, saying: "Even with the bar raised high, Toy Story 3 enchanted and moved me so deeply I was flabbergasted that a digitally animated comedy about plastic playthings could have this effect." Gleiberman also wrote in the next issue that he, along with many other grown men, cried at the end of the movie. Michael Rechtshaffen from The Hollywood Reporter also gave the film a positive review, saying: "Woody, Buzz and playmates make a thoroughly engaging, emotionally satisfying return."Chicago Sun-Times film critic Roger Ebert, while praising the film with 3 out of 4 stars, wrote that it is "a jolly, slapstick comedy, lacking the almost eerie humanity that infused the earlier Toy Story sagas, and happier with action and jokes than with characters and emotions". Writing her review for USA Today, Claudia Puig gave the film a complete 4 star rating writing "This installment, the best of the three, is everything a movie should be: hilarious, touching, exciting and clever. "Lou Lumenick, film critic of The New York Post, wrote "Toy Story 3 (which is pointlessly being shown in 3-D at most locations) may not be a masterpiece, but it still had me in tears at the end. "Michael Phillips gave the film 3/4 stars writing that "Compared with the riches of all kinds in recent Pixar masterworks such as Ratatouille, WALL-E and Up, Toy Story 3 looks and plays like an exceptionally slick and confident product, as opposed to a magical blend of commerce and popular art. "Orlando Sentinel film critic Roger Moore who gave the film 3 1/2 out of 4 stars wrote "Dazzling, scary and sentimental, Toy Story 3 is a dark and emotional conclusion to the film series that made Pixar famous. "Box office

Toy Story 3 made a strong debut, grossing $41,148,961 on its opening day at the box office from 4,028 theaters and was set to be the biggest opening for a Pixar film, surpassing The Incredibles's $70,467,623. In addition, Toy Story 3 had the single-highest opening day gross for an animated film on record, beating Shrek the Third's $38 million. During its opening weekend, the film grossed $110,307,189, ranking it #1 for the weekend. The film had the second highest opening for an animated movie behind Shrek the Third's $121,629,270 and also had the third best opening for a movie in 2010 behind Iron Man 2 and Alice in Wonderland, which grossed $128,122,480 and $116,101,023 respectively. With this, Toy Story 3 also became the highest opening weekend film in June at the box office, beating Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen. Toy Story 3 also became the biggest opening G-rated film, the tenth biggest opening weekend of all-time, and the eighth top summer opening weekend of all-time. On its second weekend, Toy Story 3 lost 46.2% grossing $59,337,669, and remaining the #1 spot for two weeks defeating the new releases Grown Ups and Knight and Day. As of June 30, 2010, Toy Story 3 grossed $258,826,169 domestically and $114,213,000 in foreign countries which totals up to $373,039,169 worldwide.


Soundtrack

Toy Story 3
Soundtrack by Randy Newman
Released June 15, 2010
Genre Film score
Length 56:00
Label Walt Disney Records
No. Title Artist Length
1. "We Belong Together" Randy Newman 4:03
2. "You've Got a Friend in Me (para Buzz EspaƱol)" The Gipsy Kings 2:15
3. "Cowboy!" Randy Newman 4:11
4. "Garbage?" Randy Newman 2:41
5. "Sunnyside" Randy Newman 2:20
6. "Woody Bails" Randy Newman 4:40
7. "Come to Papa" Randy Newman 2:06
8. "Go See Lotso" Randy Newman 3:37
9. "Bad Buzz" Randy Newman 2:22
10. "You Got Lucky" Randy Newman 5:59
11. "Spanish Buzz" Randy Newman 3:31
12. "What About Daisy?" Randy Newman 2:07
13. "To The Dump" Randy Newman 3:51
14. "The Claw" Randy Newman 3:57
15. "Going Home" Randy Newman 3:22
16. "So Long" Randy Newman 4:55
17. "Zu-Zu (Ken's Theme)" Randy Newman 0:35

In addition to the tracks included in the soundtrack album, the film also uses "Dream Weaver" by Gary Wright, "Le Freak" by Chic, and Randy Newman's original version of "You've Got A Friend In Me".

Also, tracks "Cowboy!" and "Come to Papa" included material from Newman's rejected score to Air Force One.





Source : Wikipedia

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Sunday, April 18, 2010

Cara Mengklik Iklan Di Website PTC Gagabux

Sebelum saya ngebahas tentang Cara Mengklik Iklan Di Gagabux, saya udah pernah share hasil payout dari PTC yang bernama "Gagabux" Dan Juga Bagaimana Cara Mendaftar Di Website PTC Gagabux . Nah kali ini saya mau memposting gimana cara klik iklan di gagabux. langsung aja ya saya kasih tutorial beserta pic hasil screenshoot saya sendiri.

Pertama-tama Login terlebih dahulu ke website gagabux, setelah itu klik menu "Surf Ads". nah setelah itu akan terlihat halaman surf ads tersebut seperti pic berikut.


Di Gambar tersebut terlihat beberapa kategori dan iklan-iklan yang bisa kita klik, tapi kali ini saya ambil contoh iklan The ShoeMoney System is Live saja. Klik pada tulisan "The ShoeMoney System Is Live" yang berwarna oranye, setelah di klik akan terdapat Icon Bulat berwarna merah dan terdapat tulisan "Click The Red Button To View The Advertisement" di tempat tadi kalian mengklik tulisan "The ShoeMoney" seperti pada pic di bawah ini.

Setelah Tombol merah tersebut di klik, browser otomatis akan membuat tab baru yang berisi website dari iklan "The ShoeMoney System Is Live" tersebut seperti pada pic di bawah ini.

Dari picture di atas kita bisa ngeliat isi dari website tersebut, dan di atas website tersebut terdapat banner gagabux dan tulisan 57%. kita tinggal menunggu beberapa detik lagi untuk bikin 57% naik-naik terus sampai ke 100% dan kita mendapatkan $0.01 dari hasil klik iklan tersebut. Jika sudah mencapai 100% akan terlihat seperti pic di bawah ini.

Di picture tersebut sudah terdapat baner hijau di bagian atas website yang bertuliskan "You have been credited for clicking the advertisement". itu berarti kita sudah berhasil mendapatkan $0.01 dari hasil klik iklan gagabux dan akan di simpan di "Current Balance" akun gagabux kita. Kalau kita masih mau ngejelajahin website tersebut kita tinggal klik tombol "Close" di sebelah tulisan "You have been credited for clicking the advertisement". tapi kalau udah puas ngeliat websitenya tutup saja tab tersebut. Nah sekarang icon di sebelah kiri tulisan "The ShoeMoney System Is Live" udah berubah jadi ikon jam dari yang asalnya ikon kantong uang. itu berarti kita udah pernah mengklik iklan tersebut, bisa di lihat seperti picture di bawah ini.

Sekian post dari saya tentang "Cara Mengklik Iklan Di Gagabux".
Thanks, Kidsshadow.
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Sunday, March 28, 2010

Payout Pertama Dari GagaBux / First Payout From Gagabux


Halo, ketemu lagi sama saya. Udah lama nih gak ngeblog, kali ini saya mau ngepost tentang pengalaman saya dapet Payout dari GagaBux atau bahasa inggrisnya mah "First Payout From Gagabux" hehehe (sok inggris mode on) . Gagabux itu Website PTC, jadi kita dapet $ hanya untuk ngeklik-klik aja link yang di kasih sama mereka, terus kalau udah kekumpul banyak kita bisa request payout (minta gaji lah istilah lainnya).

Langsung aja nih Bukti-bukti pembayaran dari Gagabux.

jadi ingin gak dapet uang dari gagabux ?? caranya juga gampang kok, kita tinggal log-in di website mereka, terus kita klik-klik link yang di kasih sama mereka. setiap klik kita di kasih $0.01 terus kita bisa nge klik banyak iklan sehari, kalau saya biasa dapet 17 iklan sehari. jadinya sehari saya bisa dapet $0.17 . nah kalau kita mau payout yang pertama kita harus ngumpulin dulu sampai $2 . kira-kira 12 hari ngeklik udah bisa request payout.. nah kalau kita mau di hargain lebih mahal kliknya yaitu $0.02 per klik, kita bisa upgrade keanggotaan jadi silver, harganya $9 (kalau gak salah), dan kita bisa dapet lebih banyak klik dalam perharinya.

Sekian dulu deh pengalaman payout pertama saya dari gagabux. jadi yang mau daftar ke gagabux klik aja gambar di bawah ini, atau klik linknya DISINI.


Thanks ^^
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Sunday, March 7, 2010

Lockerz, Cuma ngumpulin poin bisa dapet hadiah-hadiah menarik.!

Halo, ketemu lagi sama sayaa. ^^
Kali ini saya mo ngepost tentan "Lockerz". Agan-agan ada yang tau tentang lockerz gak ? klo gak saya post langsung ya about lockerz dari webnya langsung.

Apa itu lockerz ??? Lockerz adalah Website yang member dari website tersebut bisa mengumpulkan pointz atau disebut dengan ptz untuk mendapatkan Hadiah-hadiah menarik seperti : Kaos lockerz, Skateboard, DVD Game, Wii, Xbox, Voucher belanja di amazon.com, uang dari paypal, MacBook dan hadiah menarik lainnya. Langsung mulai ya penjelasan langsung dari webnya. ^^


What is Lockerz?

 

Lockerz launches in early 2010. Get in now and start earning PTZ (Pointz)!

Lockerz is an invitation-only website created to connect members through commerce, content and social networking. Once invited, you'll be able to watch exclusive video, buy great products, discover new music, play games, and connect with friends. You'll be able to do this all in one place, AND you'll get rewarded for just doing the things you love. When you watch a video, play a game, or even log in, you'll earn Pointz (or "PTZ") Lockerz own form of currency. Turn around and redeem your PTZ for incredible merchandise, unique experiences and exclusive deals and sales.
Our mission is to be your daily habit, not a site for your parents or grandparents looking for their long-lost friends from kindergarten. Thanks to our millions of members around the world, Lockerz is already taking off beyond our greatest expectations. While still in beta, we've been sending today's most coveted items, from iPods to Xboxes, to members around the globe who have redeemed their PTZ and earned great prizes.
Too good to be true? Why are we doing this? To thank you for joining early. To build a Lockerz community of leaders and trendsetters. To give you a taste of how PTZ will work when we go live in early 2010. And to test out different prizes and PTZ levels. That's key. This version of PTZ Place is a test. PTZ levels will change when the full Lockerz site launches.
We're excited to have our early members join now, and explore and help shape the site before our official launch. We hope you'll join us.


Cukup kan ??? Jadi udah tau tentang lockerz.

Nah sekarang gimana caranya ngedapetin Pointz ???
1. login ke ptz (klik lambang $ di bagian bawah kiri lockerz) = 2 ptz
2. jawab pertanyaan harian (Daily Question) = 2 ptz
3. nonton video (Nonton doang bisa beberapa video di tonton) = 2 ptz
4. invite orang (undang temen-temen buat join di lockerz) = 2 ptz per 1 teman.

Nih saya nemu imagenya dari kaskus..  Thanks to Riddance@kaskus.


Sekarang udah tau kan tentang lockerz ??
tinggal daftar aja langsung!! . tapi kita gak bisa asal daftar ke lockerz, jadi kita harus di invite sama orang lain.
kalo ada yang minat buat join Lockerz kirim aja email ke juni0rzone@yahoo.com (email gw atas nama "Ghiffari Hendana"). dengan subject "Daftar Lockerz". nanti saya email balik link buat daftar lockerznya.

kalau enggak bisa comment di postan di blog saya ini, post emailnya juga ya. nanti saya invite lockerz, atas nama "Ghiffari Hendana" dan bukan yang laen,,, hehehehe.
kalo enggak kalian tinggal masuk ke http://invite.lockerz.ro/?id=kidsshadow  trus isi emailnya.. entar saya bales email agan sama link invite buat daftar lockerz. kalau udah cek di kotak masuk atau enggak spam.
sekian dulu ya.

Thanks, Kidsshadow. ^^
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Wednesday, March 3, 2010

Playstation 2

PlayStation 2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The PlayStation 2 (often shortened to PS2) is a sixth-generation video game console manufactured by Sony. The successor to the PlayStation, and the predecessor to the PlayStation 3, the PlayStation 2 forms part of the PlayStation series of video game consoles. Its development was announced in March 1999 and it was released a year later in Japan. Its primary competitors were Sega's Dreamcast, Microsoft's Xbox, and the Nintendo GameCube.
The PS2 is the best-selling console to date, having reached over 138 million units sold as of August 18, 2009 and a software library projected to exceed about 1,900 games in 2009. Several new games are scheduled to be released in 2010, thus continuing the sixth generation. It also holds the dubious record for "First Console in a Nuclear Weapons conspiracy


PlayStation 2
Official PlayStation 2 logo
A PlayStation 2 in the original design
Original model design and logo of the PS2.
Manufacturer Sony Computer Entertainment
Product family PlayStation
Type Video game console
Generation Sixth generation (128-bit era)
Retail availability JP March 4, 2000
NA October 26, 2000
EU November 24, 2000
AUS November 30, 2000

Units shipped 138 million (as of September 1, 2009)
Media DVD, CD
CPU 128-bit "Emotion Engine" clocked at 294.912 MHz (launch), 299 MHz (newer models)
Storage capacity 40 GB Hard Drive , PlayStation and PlayStation 2 Memory cards
Graphics "Graphics Synthesizer" clocked at 147.456 MHz
Controller input DualShock 2
Connectivity 100 Mbit Ethernet/modem adapter, 2x USB 1.1
Online services Dynamic Network Authentication System
Best-selling game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas: 17.33 million sold (as of February, 2009)
Backward
compatibility
PlayStation
Predecessor PlayStation
Successor PlayStation 3

History

Only a few million people had obtained consoles by the end of 2000 due to manufacturing delays.Directly after its release, it was difficult to find PS2 units on retailer shelves. Another option was purchasing the console online through auction websites such as eBay, where people paid over one thousand dollars for a PS2. The PS2 initially sold well partly on the basis of the strength of the PlayStation brand and the console's backward compatibility, selling over 980,000 units in Japan by March 5, 2000, one day after launch. This allowed the PS2 to tap the large install base established by the PlayStation — another major selling point over the competition. Later, Sony added new development kits for game developers and more PS2 units for consumers.
A notable piece of advertising for the PS2 launch was accompanied by the popular "PS9" television commercial. It was to be the epitome of development, toward which the PS2 was the next step. The ad also presaged the development of the PlayStation Portable (first released in Japan on December 12, 2004).
Many analysts predicted a close three-way matchup between the PS2 and competitors Microsoft's Xbox and the Nintendo GameCube (GameCube being the cheapest of the three consoles and had an open market of games); however, the release of several blockbuster games during the 2001 holiday season maintained sales momentum and held off the PS2's rivals.
Although Sony, unlike Sega with its Dreamcast, placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first years, that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox. Sony released the PlayStation Network Adaptor in late 2002 to compete with Microsoft, with several online first–party titles released alongside it, such as SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs to demonstrate its active support for Internet play. Sony also advertised heavily, and its online model had the support of Electronic Arts. Although Sony and Nintendo both started out late, and although both followed a decentralized model of online gaming where the responsibility is up to the developer to provide the servers, Sony's attempt made online gaming a major selling point of the PS2.
In September 2004, in time for the launch of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, Sony revealed a new, slimmer PS2 (see Hardware revisions). In preparation for the launch of the new models (SCPH-70000-90000), Sony stopped making the older models (SCPH-30000-50000) to let the distribution channel empty its stock of the units. After an apparent manufacturing issue—Sony reportedly underestimated demand—caused some initial slowdown in producing the new unit caused in part by shortages between the time the old units were cleared out and the new units were ready. The issue was compounded in Britain when a Russian oil tanker became stuck in the Suez Canal, blocking a ship from China carrying PS2s bound for the UK. During one week in November, British sales totalled 6,000 units — compared to 70,000 units a few weeks prior. There were shortages in more than 1700 stores in North America on the day before Christmas.
Sony announced that starting April 1, 2009, the PS2 would be retailing at the price of $99.99.

Hardware and software compatibility

In addition to PS2 software, the PS2 can read both CDs and DVDs and is backward compatible with PlayStation games. The PS2 also supports PlayStation memory cards and controllers, although the memory cards only work with PS1 games and the controllers may not support all functions (such as analog buttons) for PS2 games.

The PlayStation 2's DualShock 2 controller is cosmetically similar to the original DualShock.
The PS2's DualShock 2 controller is essentially an upgraded PlayStation DualShock; analog face, shoulder and D-pad buttons replaced the digital buttons of the original. Like its predecessor, the DualShock 2 controller has force feedback, which is commonly called the "vibration" function. The standard PlayStation 2 memory card has an 8MB capacity and uses Sony's MagicGate encryption. This requirement prevented the production of memory cards by third parties who did not purchase a license for the MagicGate encryption. Memory cards without encryption can be used to store PlayStation game saves, but PlayStation games would be unable to read from or write to the card - such a card could only be used as a backup.
The console also features USB and IEEE 1394 expansion ports. Compatibility with USB and IEEE 1394 devices is dependent on the software supporting the device. For example, the PS2 BIOS will not boot an ISO image from a USB flash drive or operate a USB printer, as the machine's operating system does not include this functionality. By contrast, Gran Turismo 4 is programmed to save screenshots to a USB mass storage device and print images on certain USB printers. A PlayStation 2 HDD can be installed in an expansion bay on the back of the console, with some exceptions (see Hardware revisions below).


Online

With the purchase of a separate unit called the Network Adapter (which is built into the slimline model), some PS2 games support online multiplayer. Instead of having a unified, subscription-based online service like Xbox Live, online multiplayer on the PS2 is split between publishers and run on third-party servers. Most recent PS2 online games have been developed to exclusively support broadband Internet access. Xbox Live similarly requires a broadband Internet connection.
All online PS2 games released in and after 2003 are protected by the Dynamic Network Authentication System (DNAS). The purpose of this system is to prevent piracy and online cheating. DNAS will prevent games from being played online if they are determined to be pirated copies or if they have been modified. However, methods have been developed to get around this protection by modifying key files in the modified game.
Also, some unofficial modifications have been made on the PS2 software allowing it to be used as a fully-functional web browser or messenger when connecting to a certain network. The PS2 can also run Linux.
The Playstation 2 Network Adapter fits flush into "Expansion Bay" on the backside of the PS2. The Adapter offers for online play through Broadband internet connections. Also LAN gameplay is accessible through using an ethernet cord, and by connection multiple Playstation 2 consoles together. Online gameplay is also accessible by using a standard Dial-Up online connection with select Playstation 2 game titles.
The broadband adapter allows LAN play with XLink Kai, a created unofficial tunneling software that allows for LAN only games to be played over the Internet.


Hardware revisions

The PS2 has undergone many revisions, some only of internal construction and others involving substantial external changes. These are colloquially known among PS2 hardware hackers as V0, V1, V2, etc., up to V18 (as of 2010).
The PS2 is primarily differentiated between models featuring the original case design and "slimline" models, which were introduced at the end of 2004.

Original case design


The original PlayStation 2 design.
Three of the original PS2 launch models (SCPH-10000, SCPH-15000, and SCPH-18000) were only sold in Japan, and lacked the expansion bay (Dev9) of current PS2 models. These models included a PCMCIA slot instead of the Dev9 port of newer models. A PCMCIA-to-Dev9 adapter was later made available for these models. SCPH-10000 and SCPH-15000 did not have a built-in DVD movie playback and instead relied on encrypted playback software that was copied to a memory card from an included CD-ROM. (Normally, the PS2 will only execute encrypted software from its memory card, but see PS2 Independence Exploit.) V3 had a substantially different internal structure from the subsequent revisions, featuring several interconnected printed circuit boards. As of V4 everything was unified into one board, except the power supply. V5 introduced minor internal changes, and the only difference between V6 (sometimes called V5.1) and V5 is the orientation of the Power/Reset switch board connector, which was reversed to prevent the use of no-solder modchips. V7 and V8 included only minor revisions to V6. Assembly of the PS2 moved to the People's Republic of China during the development of V9 (model numbers SCPH-50000 and SCPH-50001). The upgraded console added an infrared port for the optional DVD remote control, removed the IEEE 1394 port, added the capability to read DVD-RW and DVD+RW discs, added progressive-scan output of DVD movies, and added a quieter fan. V10 and V11 were only minor revisions to V9.
The PS2 standard color is matte black. Several different variations in color have been produced in different quantities and regions, including ceramic white, light yellow, metallic blue (aqua), metallic silver, navy (star blue), opaque blue (astral blue), opaque black (midnight black), pearl white, Sakura purple, satin gold, satin silver, snow white, super red, transparent blue (ocean blue) and also Limited Edition color Pink which was distributed in some regions such as Oceania, and parts of Asia.
The small PlayStation logo on the front of the disc tray could be rotated ninety degrees, in order for the logo to be the right way up in both vertical and horizontal console orientations. This feature is also used in the slimlines.

Slimline

PlayStation 2 slimline
SCPH-75000CB.jpg
The first PS2 slimline. This was succeeded by another slimline in 2007.
Manufacturer Sony Computer Entertainment
Product family PlayStation
Type Video game console
Generation Sixth generation era
Retail availability October 2004 - Present
CPU 333 MHz
Controller input DualShock 2
In September 2004, Sony unveiled its third major hardware revision (V12, model number SCPH-70000). Available in late October 2004, it is smaller, thinner, and quieter than the older versions and includes a built-in Ethernet port (in some markets it also has an integrated modem). Due to its thinner profile, it does not contain the 3.5" expansion bay and therefore does not support the internal hard disk drive. It also lacks an internal power supply, similar to the GameCube, and has a modified Multitap expansion. The removal of the expansion bay has been criticized as a limitation due to the existence of titles such as Final Fantasy XI, which require the use of the HDD. The official PS2 Linux also requires an expansion bay to function. Currently only the modified Multitap is sold in stores, however these are also compatible with the older versions, and also added support for multiple memory cards on some games. Third-party connectors can be soldered into the unit giving hard drive support, however IDE connections were completely removed in the V14 revision, thereby eliminating this option. Certain mod chips enable the use of a USB hard drive or other mass storage device. As of October 2009 Present Playstation 2 SlimLine Can now use HDD by attaching a modified board and modified mod chip thus require minor soldering techniques.
There are some disputes on the numbering for this PS2 version, since there are actually two sub-versions of the SCPH-70000. One of them includes the old EE and GS chips, and the other contains the newer unified EE+GS chip, but otherwise they are identical. Since the V12 version had already been established for this model, there were some disputes regarding these sub-versions. Two propositions were to name the old model (with separate EE and GS chips) V11.5 and the newer model V12, and to name the old model V12 and the newer model V13. Currently, most people use V12 for both models, or V12 for the old model and V13 for the newer one.
The V12 model was first released in black, but a silver edition is available in the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, United Arab Emirates and other GCC Countries, France, Italy, South Africa, and most recently, North America. It is unknown whether or not this will follow the color schemes of the older model, although a limited edition console that is pink in colour has become available since March 2007.
V12 (or V13) was succeeded by V14 (SCPH-75001 and SCPH-75002), which contains integrated EE and GS chips, and different ASICs compared to previous revisions, with some chips having a copyright date of 2005, compared to 2000 or 2001 for earlier models. It also has a different lens and some compatibility issues with a different number of PlayStation games and even some PS2 games.

Comparison of the slimline PlayStation 2 design with the PlayStation 2, with an Eye Toy on top.
In the beginning of 2005 it was found that some black slimline console power transformers bought between November and December 2004 were defective and could overheat. The units were recalled by Sony, with the company supplying a replacement model made in 2005.
Later hardware revisions had better compatibility with PlayStation games (Metal Gear Solid: VR Missions operates on most silver models); however, the new Japanese slim models have more issues with playing PlayStation games than the first PS2 revisions.
In 2006, Sony released new hardware revisions (V15, model numbers SCPH-77001a and SCPH-77001b). It was first released in Japan on September 15, 2006, including the Silver edition. After its release in Japan, it was then released in North America, Europe, and other parts of the world. The new revision uses an integrated, unified EE+GS chip, a redesigned ASIC, a different laser lens, an updated BIOS, and updated drivers.
In July 2007, Sony started shipping a revision of the slimline PlayStation 2 (SCPH-79000) featuring a reduced weight of 600 grams compared to 900 grams of the SCPH-77001, achieved through a reduction in parts. The unit also uses a smaller motherboard as well as a custom ASIC which houses the Emotion Engine, Graphics Synthesizer, and the RDRAM. The AC adaptor's weight was also reduced to 250 grams from the 350 grams in the previous revision.
Another refinement of the slimline PlayStation 2 (SCPH-90000) was released in Japan on November 22, 2007, and in the US in late 2008, with an overhauled internal design that incorporates the power supply into the console itself, with a further reduced total weight of 720 grams. SCPH-90000 series consoles manufactured after March 2008 incorporate a revised BIOS, which disables an exploit present in all older models that allowed homebrew applications to be launched from a memory card.

PSX

Sony also manufactured a consumer device called the PSX that can be used as a digital video recorder and DVD burner in addition to playing PS2 games. The device was released in Japan on December 13, 2003, and is the first Sony product to include the XrossMediaBar interface. It did not sell well in the Japanese market and was not released anywhere else.

Sales

Region Units sold First available
Japan 21 million (as of October 1, 2008) March 4, 2000
North America 50 million (as of December 2008) October 26, 2000
Europe 48 million (as of May 6, 2008) November 24, 2000
Worldwide 138 million (as of August 18, 2009)
On November 29, 2005, the PlayStation 2 became the fastest game console to reach 100 million units shipped, accomplishing the feat within 5 years and 9 months from its launch. This achievement occurred faster than its predecessor, the PlayStation, which took 9 years and 6 months to reach the same benchmark.
The PS2 has sold 138 million sell-in units worldwide as of August 18, 2009, according to Sony. In Europe, the PS2 has sold 48 million units as of May 6, 2008, according to Sony Computer Entertainment Europe. In North America, the PS2 has sold 50 million units as of December 2008. In Japan, the PS2 has sold 21,454,325 units as of October 1, 2008, according to Famitsu/Enterbrain.
In Europe, the PS2 sold 6 million units in 2006 and 3.8 million in 2007, according to estimates by Electronic Arts. In 2007, the PS2 sold 3.97 million units in the US according to the NPD Group and 816,419 units in Japan according to Enterbrain. In 2008, the PS2 sold 480,664 units in Japan, according to Enterbrain.

Accessories

The PlayStation 2's DualShock 2 controller is largely identical to the PlayStation's DualShock, with the same basic functionality; however, it includes analog pressure sensitivity on the face, shoulder and D-pad buttons, is lighter and includes two more levels of vibration.

The EyeToy.

Resident Evil 4 chainsaw controller compatible with the PlayStation 2.
Optional hardware includes DualShock or DualShock 2 controllers, a PS2 DVD remote control, an internal or external HDD, a network adapter, horizontal and vertical stands, PlayStation or PS2 memory cards, light guns (GunCon), fishing rod and reel controllers. Also available are various cables and interconnects, including the Multitap for PlayStation or PS2, S-Video, RGB, SCART, VGA (for progressive scan games and PS2 Linux only), component and composite video cables, an RF modulator, a USB camera (EyeToy), dance pads for Dance Dance Revolution, In the Groove, and Pump It Up titles, Konami microphones for use with the Karaoke Revolution games, dual microphones (sold with and used exclusively for SingStar games), various "guitar" controllers (for the Guitar Freaks series and Guitar Hero series), the drum set controller (sold in a box set (or by itself) with a "guitar" controller and a USB microphone (for use with Rock Band), Onimusha 3 katana controller, Resident Evil 4 chainsaw controller, a USB keyboard and mouse, and a headset. Unlike the PlayStation, which required the use of an official Sony PlayStation mouse to play mouse-compatible games, the few PS2 games with mouse support work with standard PC-compatible USB mice. Early versions of the PS2 could be networked via an iLink port, though this had little game support and was dropped. The original PS2 multitap cannot be plugged into the newer slim models (as the multitap connects to the memory card slot as well as the controller slot and the memory card slot on the slimline is shallower). New slim-design multitaps are manufactured for these models, however third-party adapters also exist to permit original multitaps to be used. Some third party manufacturers have created devices that allow disabled people to access the PS2 through ordinary switches etc. One such device is the PS2-SAP from LEPMIS, another is for example the JPemulator.

Homebrew development

Sony released a version of the Linux operating system for the PS2 in a package that also includes a keyboard, mouse, Ethernet adapter and HDD. Currently, Sony's online store states that the Linux kit is no longer for sale in North America. However as of July 2005, the European version was still available. The kit boots by installing a proprietary interface, the run-time environment, which is on a region-coded DVD, so the European and North America kits only work with a PS2 from their respective regions.
In Europe and Australia, the PS2 comes with a free Yabasic interpreter on the bundled demo disc. This allows simple programs to be created for the PS2 by the end-user. This was included in a failed attempt to circumvent a UK tax by defining the console as a "computer" if it contained certain software.
A port of the NetBSD project and BlackRhino GNU/Linux, an alternative Debian-based distribution, are also available for the PS2.
Using homebrew programs (e.g. 'SMS Media Player') it is possible to listen to various audio file formats (MP3, OMA, Ogg Vorbis, AAC, FLAC, AC3), and watch various video formats (DivX/XviD, MPEG1, MPEG2, MPEG4-ASP in AVI Container) using the console. Media can be played from any device connected to the console i.e. external USB/Firewire thumb drive/hard disk (FAT32 only), the internal hard disk on early revision consoles, optical CD-R(W)/DVD±R(W) disks (modded systems or patched disks), or network shares (Windows Network or PS2 host: protocol).
Homebrew programs can be launched directly from a memory card on unmodified consoles by using certain software that takes advantage of a long known and used exploit, dealing with the boot part of the EE/IOP process (Independence). A recent development (May 2008) allows homebrew programs to be launched without a trigger disc such as is needed in the older exploit, which also allows use of homebrew on unmodded systems with a dead disc drive (Free McBoot). However, installation of the exploit to each individual memory card requires an already exploited/modded system in order to launch the installer. Copying from one memory card to another will not work. This newer exploit will not work on the very newest PS2s (SCPH-9000x model with BIOS 2.30 and up) but will work on ALL models prior to that, including slimlines.
Homebrew programs can be used to play patched backups of original PS2 DVD games on unmodified consoles, and to install retail discs to an installed hard drive on older models (ESR, HDLoader, USBAdvance). This is illegal in many countries.
Homebrew emulators of older computer and gaming systems have been developed for the PS2 Using these homebrew programs the PS2 can emulate the following: Atari 2600, Atari 5200, BBC Micro, Commodore 64, Game Boy, Mega Drive/Genesis, Sega Master System, MSX, Neo Geo, Nintendo Entertainment System, TurboGrafx-16, and Super Nintendo Entertainment System.

Technical specifications

The specifications of the PlayStation 2 console are as follows, with hardware revisions:

Graphics Synthesizer GPU

Graphics Synthesizer as on SCPH39000.

Older EE+GS that does not incorporate system memory (Found in Older Charcoal Black Slim PS2s. (SCPH-70001).

ASIC that incorporates the EE, GS, and system memory (found in silver slim PS2s. Model SCPH-79000).
  • CPU: 128-bit "Emotion Engine" clocked at 294.912 MHz (299 MHz on newer versions), 10.5 million transistors
    • System Memory: 32 MB Direct Rambus or RDRAM
    • Memory bus Bandwidth: 3.2 gigabytes per second
    • Main processor: MIPS R5900 CPU core, 64 bit, little endian (mipsel).
    • Coprocessor: FPU (Floating Point Multiply Accumulator × 1, Floating Point Divider × 1)
    • Vector Units: VU0 and VU1 (Floating Point Multiply Accumulator × 9, Floating Point Divider × 1), 32-bit, at 150 MHz.
      • VU0 typically used for polygon transformations optionally (under parallel or serial connection), physics and other gameplay based things
        • Parallel performs transformations in parallel in the same moment
        • Serial (series) performs transformations in a series of steps or stages coherent to the design of each VU
          • Stage 1: VU0 does perspective and cam, boning, animations and movement laws per triangle
          • Stage 2: VU1 does colors, lights and effects per triangle)
      • VU1 typically used for polygon transformations, lighting and other visual based calculations
        • Texture matrix able for 2 units (UV/ST)
    • Floating Point Performance: 6.2 gigaFLOPS (single precision 32-bit floating point)
      • FPU 0.64 gigaFLOPS
      • VU0 2.44 gigaFLOPS
      • VU1 3.08 gigaFLOPS (with Internal 0.64 gigaFLOP EFU)
    • 3D CG Geometric transformation(VU0+VU1 parallel): 66 million polygons per second
      • 3D CG Geometric transformations under curved surfaces: 16 million polygons per second
      • 3D CG Geometric transformations at peak bones/movements/effects(textures)/lights(VU0+VU1): 15-20 million polygons per second (dependent on if series or parallel T&L)
      • Actual real-world polygons (per frame):500-650k at 30fps, 250-325k at 60fps
    • Compressed Image Decoder: MPEG-2
    • I/O Processor interconnection: Remote Procedure Call over a serial link, DMA controller for bulk transfer
    • Cache memory: Instruction: 16 KB, Data: 8 KB + 16 KB (ScrP)
  • Graphics processing unit: "Graphics Synthesizer" clocked at 147 MHz
    • Pixel pipelines: 16
    • Video output resolution: variable from 256x224 to 1280x1024 pixels
    • 4 MB Embedded DRAM video memory bandwidth at 48 gigabytes per second (main system 32 MB can be dedicated into VRAM for off-screen materials)
      • Texture buffer bandwidth: 9.6 GB/s
      • Frame buffer bandwidth: 38.4 GB/s
    • DRAM Bus width: 2560-bit (composed of three independent buses: 1024-bit write, 1024-bit read, 512-bit read/write)
    • Pixel Configuration: RGB: Alpha:Z Buffer (24:8, 15:1 for RGB, 16, 24, or 32-bit Z buffer)
    • Dedicated connection to: Main CPU and VU1
    • Overall Pixel fillrate: 16x147 = 2.352 Gpixel/s (rounded to 2.4 Gpixel/s)
      • Pixel fillrate: with no texture, flat shaded 2.4(75,000,000 32pixel raster triangles)
      • Pixel fillrate: with 1 full texture(Diffuse Map), Gouraud shaded 1.2 (37,750,000 32-bit pixel raster triangles)
      • Pixel fillrate: with 2 full textures(Diffuse map + specular or alpha or other), Gouraud shaded 0.6 (18,750,000 32-bit pixel raster triangles)
    • GS effects: AAx2 (poly sorting required), Bilinear, Trilinear, Multi-pass, Palletizing (4-bit = 6:1 ratio, 8-bit = 4:1)
    • Multi-pass rendering ability
      • Four passes = 300 Mpixel/s (300 Mpixels/s divided by 32 pixels = 9,375,000 triangles/s lost every four passes)
  • Audio: "SPU1+SPU2" (SPU1 is actually the CPU clocked at 8 MHz)
  • I/O Processor
    • I/O Memory: 2 MB
    • CPU Core: Original PlayStation CPU (MIPS R3000A clocked at 33.8688 MHz or 37.5 MHz)
    • Automatically underclocked to 33.8688 MHz to achieve hardware backwards compatibility with original PlayStation format games.
    • Sub Bus: 32-bit
    • Connection to: SPU and CD/DVD controller.
  • Interfaces:
    • 2 proprietary PlayStation controller ports (250 kHz clock for PS1 and 500 kHz for PS2 controllers)
    • 2 proprietary Memory Card slots using MagicGate encryption (250 kHz for PS1 cards, up to 2 MHz for PS2 cards)
    • Expansion Bay (PCMCIA on early models for PCMCIA Network Adaptor and External Hard Disk Drive) DEV9 port for Network Adaptor
    • Modem, Ethernet and Internal Hard Disk Drive (single IDE/ATA channel, possible to hook 2 devices to.)
    • FireWire (only in SCPH 10xxx – 3xxxx)
    • Infrared remote control port (SCPH 5000x and newer) — IEEE 1394 port removed and Infrared port added in SCPH-50000 and later hardware versions.
    • 2 USB 1.1 ports with an OHCI-compatible controller.
  • Disc Drive type: proprietary interface through a custom micro-controller + DSP chip. 24x speed (PlayStation 2 format CD-ROM, PlayStation format CD-ROM), 4x (Supported DVD formats) — Region-locked with anti-copy protection. Can't read Gold Discs.
  • Supported Disc Media: PlayStation 2 format CD-ROM, PlayStation format CD-ROM, Compact Disc Audio, PlayStation 2 format DVD-ROM (4.7 GB)(some games on DVD9 8.5 GB), DVD Video (4.7 GB), DVD-9 (8.5 GB Double-Layer). Later models (starting with SCPH-50000) are DVD+RW, and DVD-RW compatible.

Disc Read Error (DRE) Lawsuit

A class action lawsuit was filed against Sony Computer Entertainment America Inc. on July 16, 2002, in the Superior Court of California, County of San Mateo. The lawsuit addresses consumer reports of inappropriate "no disc error" (disc read error) messages and other problems associated with playing DVDs and CDs on the PlayStation 2.
Sony settled its “disc read error” lawsuit by compensating the affected gamers with USD $25, a free game from a specified list, and the reduced cost repair or replacement (at SCEA’s discretion) of the damaged system. This settlement was subject to the courts’ approval, and hearings began in the US and Canada on April 28, 2006, and May 11, 2006, respectively.

Emulation

See also: PCSX2




Source : Wikipedia
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